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事实信息题提分提速小技巧 - 魏杨

作者:魏杨 2019-09-12 14:09 来源:武汉编辑
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事实信息题是托福阅读中的基础题型,虽然总体难度比不上推断题、修辞目的题,但是因为出题占比较高,托福阅读想拿25分以上的同学在这个题型上要力求"快准稳",为较难的题目节省一些时间;而托福阅读不到20分的同学在这个题型上一般还是有一些解题障碍的。


TPO1-54的阅读部分中,事实信息题的占比在26%,每篇的出题频率在3~6,托福新政实行后,该题型的比例虽然有所下降,但是依然是所有题型中频率较高的,所以,只有又快又准的完成事实信息题,才能有更多的时间来思考较难的题型,然后"优雅端庄,不慌不忙"的解决主旨题。


一、 题型要求


事实信息题要求考生能够理解并找出文中提到的事实。这种问题可能包括文中明确提出的事实或信息。这种题可能考查细节、定义、解释或其他的数据种类。被考查的事实通常只能在文章的某一处找到,可能是在某一两个句子里,它并不考查大家对文章的整体把握。


二、 题型特点


(1) 通常有段落范围: According to paragraph X


(2) 通常为特殊疑问句,一般都会有比较明显的标示性表述,所选的正确答案在原文中作者是明确描述出来的(explicitly stated),这可以跟推断题区分开来。


三、 重点技巧及应用


总体来说事实信息题想要又快又准的话,必备技巧就是快速定位和识别同义改写,但由于在比对选项和原文的过程中有时会有一些拿不准的情况(比如有一两个关键词不认识或者句式有一些变化),这种时候需要尽量使用排除法。


一般来说不建议大家一开始就试图去看完整段话再做题,一方面是因为理解能力不足会导致看文段时间较长,另一方面因为题量减少后可能一个长段只出一道题,看整段"性价比"不高。


1)一次定位解题:题干关键词定位


难度系数:一星


做题时间:50s以内


· 例题:TPO5-1 Minerals and Plants,


Paragraph 1: Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development.The soil is the source of these minerals,which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil.Even nitrogen,which is a gas in its elemental state,is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions.Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life.So-called serpentine soils,for example,are deficient in calcium,and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive.In modern agriculture,mineral depletion of soils is a major concern,since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil.


According to paragraph 1,what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soil?


A.They absorb micronutrients unusually well.


B.They require far less calcium than most plants do.


C.They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state.


D.They are typically crops raised for food.


思路导入:plant和soil词频过高,但serpentine soil较为特殊,定位到第5句话,即使deficient不熟悉,依然能够找到这种植物肯定跟calcium有关系,而只有B答案出现了calcium。


· 例题:TPO1-3 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains


Paragraph 2: The upper timberline,like the snow line,is highest in the tropics and lowest in the Polar Regions.It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics.Timberline trees are normally evergreens,suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline.There are some areas,however,where broadleaf deciduous trees form the timberline.Species of birch,for example,may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.


Paragraph 2 supports which of the following statements about deciduous trees?


A.They cannot grow in cold climates.


B.They do not exist at the upper timberline.


C.They are less likely than evergreens to survive at the upper timberline.


D.They do not require as much moisture as evergreens do.


· 思路导入: deciduous trees 特殊,不认识deciduous没关系,直接定位到第3句话,evergreen比deciduous有优势,只有C选项表达了这个意思。


· 小结:对于题干有较明显关键词的题目一定先从题干入手,有一些不熟悉的词不要害怕。


2)多次定位解题:题干关键词定位后需再次定位


难度系数:二星


做题时间:60s以内


· 例题:TPO5-1 Minerals and Plants,


Paragraph 2: Mineral deficiencies can often be detected by specific symptoms such as chlorosis (loss of chlorophyll resulting in yellow or white leaf tissue),necrosis (isolated dead patches),anthocyanin formation (development of deep red pigmentation of leaves or stem),stunted growth,and development of woody tissue in an herbaceous plant.Soils are most commonly deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus.Nitrogen-deficient plants exhibit many of the symptoms just described.Leaves develop chlorosis;stems are short and slender,and anthocyanin discoloration occurs on stems,petioles,and lower leaf surfaces.Phosphorus-deficient plants are often stunted,with leaves turning a characteristic dark green,often with the accumulation of anthocyanin.Typically,older leaves are affected first as the phosphorus is mobilized to young growing tissue.Iron deficiency is characterized by chlorosis between veins in young leaves.


According to paragraph 2,a symptom of iron deficiency is the presence in young leaves of


A.deep red discoloration between the veins


B.white or yellow tissue between the veins


C.dead spots between the veins


D.characteristic dark green veins


· 思路导入:iron deficiency特殊且是问题的重点,young leaves只是问的iron deficiency的症状的位置,明显不如iron deficiency合适,定位到最后一句话中,找到chlorosis,但比对选项发现并没有chlorosis这个词出现,因此需要再次定位chlorosis这个词,并找到症状,出现在第1句话的括号中,yellow or white只有B选项中有。


According to paragraph 2,which of the following symptoms occurs in phosphorus-deficient plants but not in plants deficient in nitrogen or iron?


A.Chlorosis on leaves


B.Change in leaf pigmentation to a dark shade of green


C.Short,stunted appearance of stems


D.Reddish pigmentation on the leaves or stem


· 思路导入:phosphorus-deficient特殊且是问题的重点,定位发现有stunt,dark green和anthocyanin但还需要不出现在nitrogen deficiency和iron deficiency中,所以需要再次定位这两个的症状,定位发现有chlorosis;stems are short and slender,and anthocyanin,对比后发现只有dark green是phosphorus独有的,选择B答案。


· 小结:这类题目关键词依然醒目,做题时需要随时的比对原文和答案。


3)选项定位+改写:题干关键词无法直接定位,每个选项依次找关键词回原文定位


难度系数:三星


做题时间:70s~90s


注意:这种方式对词汇和语法的要求较高,如果没有一次判断出正确答案,只能选择排除法(用时更长)。


· 例题:TPO47-2 Termite Ingenuity


Paragraph 1: Termites,social insects which live in colonies that,in some species,contain 2 million individuals or more,are often incorrectly referred to as white ants.But they are certainly not ants.Termites,unlike ants,have gradual metarnorphosis with only three life stage: egg,nymph,and adult.Ants and the other social members of their order,certain bees and wasps,have complete metarnorphosis in four life stages;egg,larva,pupa,and adult.The worker and soldier castes of social ants,bees,and wasps consist of only females,all daughters of a single queen that mated soon after she matured and thereafter never mated again.The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females,and the queen lives permanently with a male consort.


According to paragraph 1,which of the following is true about termites?


A.They are a kind of ant,but they are unlike most ants in many ways.


B.They form colonies that grow at first and then gradually decline.


C.Their workers are all males,and their soldiers are all females.


D.They go through a life state called the nymph stage.


· 思路导入:termites是关键词,但全篇文章都是探讨termite,所以题干定位失败,选择选项定位,A选项通过ant找到定位发现有"But they are certainly not ants";B选项定位colonies找到第一句,没有提到decline,排除。C选项定位worker/soldiers或者male/female,最后一句"The worker and soldier castes of termites consist of both males and females",排除。D答案定位到nymph stage,"only three life stage: egg,nymph,and adult"确认正确。


· 例题:TPO33-1 First Civilization


Paragraph 4: The first clear steps in the rise of the first civilizations took place in the fourth and third millennia B.C.in Mesopotamia,northern Africa,India,and China.How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain,but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called "big men" within a single village or a collection of villages.By means of their military prowess,dominant personalities,or political talents,these people gradually emerge as the leaders of that community.In time,the "big men" become formal symbols of authority and pass on that authority to others within their own family.As the communities continue to grow in size and material wealth,the "big men" assume hereditary status,and their allies and family members are transformed into a hereditary monarchy.


According to paragraph 4,what is not known about the rise of the first civilizations?


A.Where the first steps toward civilization took place


B.Who was allowed to replace "big men" after the "big men" died


C.Why some individuals became recognized as leaders


D.How governments emerged


· 思路导入:first civilization是关键词,但全篇文章都是探讨这个话题,所以题干定位失败,选择选项定位,A选项通过first step找到第一句话"in Mesopotamia,northern Africa,India,and China";B选项定位"big men"和replace(注意,此时可能出现没找到的情况,可以先跳到下一个选项)"pass on that authority to others within their own family",排除。 C选项定位leaders,找到"By means of their military prowess,dominant personalities,or political talents",排除。D答案定位到government,"How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain"确认正确(如果B选项之前无法确认的话,此时也可以确认B选项原文是有出现的)。


· 小结:做这样的题目一定要目标明确,千万不能因为题干没有关键词就去看扫全文,还是从关键词出发。


4)选项定位+排除法:题干无法直接定位,选项定位时发现改写程度较高的选项先观望,试着先排除其他选项


做题时间:90s~120s


难度系数:五星


· 例题:TPO3-2 Depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer


Paragraph 4: Even development in architecture has been the result of major technological changes.Materials and methods of construction are integral parts of the design of architecture structures.In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available,such as wood,stone,brick.Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired.Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction within the last few generations have made it possible to enclose space with much greater ease and speed and with a minimum of material.Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago.


According to paragraph 4,which of the following is true about materials used in the construction of buildings?


A.Because new building materials are hard to find,construction techniques have changed very little from past generations.


B.The availability of suitable building materials no longer limits the types of structures that may be built.


C.The primary building materials that are available today are wood,stone,and brick.


D.Architects in earlier times did not have enough building materials to enclose large spaces.


· 思路导入:material是关键词,但全篇文章都是探讨这个话题,所以题干定位失败,选择选项定位,A选项通过construction techniques找到"Enormous changes in materials and techniques of construction";B选项定位"types of structures"定位到 "Today technology has progressed to the point where it is possible to invent new building materials to suit the type of structure desired",但是和B选项的意思是否一样有些不确定,观望。 C选项定位"wood,stone,and brick",找到"In earlier times it was necessary to design structural systems suitable for the materials that were available,such as wood,stone,brick.",排除。D答案定位到enclose large spaces,"Progress in this area can be measured by the difference in weight between buildings built now and those of comparable size built one hundred years ago"不确定该选项是否正确的情况下需要再将不确定的B和D及原文进行比对,发现D答案中的not enough是不正确的,B选项正确。


· 例题:TPO33-2 Railroads and Commercial Agriculture in Nineteenth-Century United States


Paragraph 3: The new railroad networks shifted the direction of western trade.In 1840 most northwestern grain was shipped south down the Mississippi River to the bustling port of New Orleans.But low water made steamboat travel hazardous in summer,and ice shut down traffic in winter.Products such as lard,tallow,and cheese quickly spoiled if stored in New Orleans' hot and humid warehouses.Increasingly,traffic from the Midwest flowed west to east,over the new rail lines.Chicago became the region's hub,linking the farms of the upper Midwest to New York and other eastern cities by more than 2,000 miles of track in 1855.Thus while the value of goods shipped by river to New Orleans continued to increase,the South's overall share of western trade dropped dramatically.


According to paragraph 3,in what way did the new rail networks change western trade?


A.Northwestern farmers almost completely stopped shipping goods by steamboat.


B.Many western goods began to be shipped east by way of Chicago rather than south to New Orleans.


C.Chicago largely replaced New York and other eastern cities as the final market for goods for the West.


D.The value of goods shipped west soon became greater than the value of goods shipped east.


· 思路导入:new rail networks是关键词,但全篇文章都是探讨这个话题,所以题干定位失败,选择选项定位,A选项通过steamboat找到"But low water made steamboat travel hazardous in summer,and ice shut down traffic in winter.",但没有提到completely stopped,排除;B选项定位"Chicago"定位到 "Chicago became the region's hub"但定位"New Orleans"只说到危险,并没有直接提到rather than的关系,无法确定B答案,观望。 C依然是Chicago,没有提到replace New York排除。D答案定位到value of goods,最后一句"Thus while the value of goods shipped by river to New Orleans continued to increase,the South's overall share of western trade dropped dramatically"不确定该选项是否正确的情况下需要再将不确定的B和D及原文进行比对,发现D答案中的west是不正确的,因为New Orleans是南部城市,确认B选项正确。


· 小结:这类的事实信息题是大家最容易纠结的,干扰项可能只用错了一个词,因此不确定的选项千万不要立刻排除或加入自己的想法强行使它正确,看一下其他的选项,最后再来"找茬",或许你觉得某个答案还有问题,但是其他选项错误更多,时间宝贵,此时便不要再钻牛角尖,果断选择去下一题。


总体来看,其实事实信息题的变化有很多,甚至包括有一些没有段落定位的情况,但是万变不离其宗,大家在做题的时候一定要保持头脑清醒,明确做题思路和步骤。平时练习的时候控制好做题时间,仔细分析自己错题的原因。考试的时候保持好心态,发挥出平时的水平就好。


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